The Animal Welfare Advisory Committee was established by the Government to advise the Minister of Agriculture on matters of animal welfare.
This Committee is establishing codes of recommended standards of welfare for various species of animals.
The Committee studying the standards for dogs has been considering a code for some two years.
The New Zealand Kennel Club was represented on this Committee by the President Mr Malcolm Banks.
The Committee has now completed the code and it is reproduced here.
It is envisaged that when the Animal Welfare Act currently before Parliament is passed it will have legislative provision to give these codes legislative authority.

List of topics.
Legal Responsibilities.
Health and Disease
Breeding and Reproduction
Surgical Procedures
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1 Introduction

Dogs evolved from wolf-like ancestors which lived in hierarchical social groups and were predators and scavengers.
They were the first animals to be domesticated by humans, and have been an important and valued part of many human communities for thousands of years.
The domesticated dogs of today retain some of the behavioral characteristics of their ancestors and it is important to recognize this in considering their needs and interests. In today's society there is growing concern about how animals are treated.
Practices that may once have been acceptable are now being reassessed and modified according to new knowledge and changing attitudes.
This code reflects current informed opinion, and hoped that it will promote better dog welfare, both by providing assistance for Inspectors under the Animals Protection Act and through education of dog owners.
2 Purpose, scope and preparation of the code

2.1 Purpose
This code complements the legislation by outlining the minimum standards which are currently acceptable to the informed New Zealand public and makes recommendations to promote good dog welfare.
The interpretation and application of the code's provisions should be tempered by common sense. All codes produced by the Animal Welfare Advisory Committee take account of five basic principles which owners and managers should use to guide their animal management practices:
Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition
provision of appropriate comfort and shelter
prevention of, or rapid diagnosis and treatment, of injury,
disease or parasite infestation
freedom from distress
the ability to display normal patterns of behaviour.
Good dog welfare depends upon owners and handlers being competent.
As well as providing the basic necessities of life for their dogs, owners should attempt to provide them with a reasonable quality of life. In the simplest terms, this encompasses social contact, and exercise which provides an opportunity for dogs to use their brain and nose in pseudo-hunting activities.
Ignorance is no excuse for inappropriate handling and management, as expect advice is readily available and should be obtained if there is any doubt about the correct procedures to follow.
2.2 Scope
The code provides the owners and handlers of dogs with principles for their care and use.
It encompasses all aspects of the management of dogs including transportation (see also Code of Recommendations and Minimum Standards for Animals Transported Within New Zealand) but does not deal with research use.
The latter is dealt with in the Code of Recommendations and Minimum Standards for the care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes.
2.3 Preparation and revision of the code
The code was written by a working group established by the Animal Welfare Advisory Committee.
During its preparation there was ex- tensive consultation with leaders and representatives of groups handling and owning dogs, including companion dog owners, farm- ers, veterinarians, scientists, teachers and welfarists.
The code is based on the knowledge and technology available at the time of publication, and may require to be updated in the light of future knowledge.
Comments on the content are invited and should be addressed to:
The Secretary
Animal Welfare Advisory Committee
PO Box 2526
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3 Legal responsibilities, powers of inspectors and definition of terms

3.1 Legal responsibilities and powers of Inspectors
It is an offence under the Animals Protection Act 1960 to allow animals to suffer unnecessary or unreasonable pain or distress.
The breach of a code standard, whilst not an offence in itself, can nevertheless be used as evidence tending to establish the guilt of anyone accused of causing an animal suffering under the Act.
Specifically, the Act indicates that an offence is committed if anyone:
cruelly ill treats any animal
being the owner or person in charge fails to provide the
animal with adequate shelter or proper food and
water(sufficient to maintain its live weight within the
normaphysiological range for its species, type, age and sex)
being the owner or person in charge, neglects the animal so
that it suffers unnecessary pain or distress
keeps or uses any place for the purpose of causing any
animal to fight or for the purpose of baiting or otherwise ill-
treating any animal, or manages or assists in the management of any
such place or is present for the purpose of witnessing the fighting or baiting of any animal at any place
used or kept for that purpose or m any manner encourages,
aids or assists in the fighting or baiting of any animal
slaughters, brands, mutilates, confines, conveys or carries
any animal in such a manner or position as to cause it
unnecessary pain or suffering
spays or causes or procures to be spayed any dog unless the
spaying is performed by a veterinarian
keeps alive any animal which is in such a condition that to
keep it alive is cruel
being the owner or person in charge of a dog, willfully
abandons it
being the owner or person in charge of any dog which is
normally tied up or kept in close confinement, omits without
reasonable cause or excuse to exercise the dog daily or to
release it for reasonable exercise
the person in charge of a vehicle shall ensure that every
animal conveyed in that vehicle is provided with reasonably
comfortable and secure accommodation.
The Act also directs that where any dog is struck by any vehicle on the road and is so injured as to be disabled, the driver or rider of the vehicle shall forthwith report the accident to the owner or person in charge of the animal or to an Inspector under the Animals Protection Act or to a police officer ... unless the driver or rider is too badly injured to do so.
The Dog Control Act 1996 requires that every dog be kept under control at all times, that it receives proper care and attention and is supplied with proper and sufficient food, water and shelter and receives adequate exercise.
The Dog Control Act 1996 also requires that every dog more than 3 months of age be registered with the relevant territorial authority (see 10.4). The owner must ensure the registration disc or label is attached to a collar worn by the dog. The Act also allows local authorities to classify dogs as dangerous. Owners of dogs that have been classified as dangerous are subject to penalty fees for registration and are required to ensure their dog is muzzled in public (see 15.1) and neutered.
Where a person is entitled to destroy a dog under the Dog Control Act 1996 and does so in a reasonable manner, or wounds or maims the dog in an attempt to destroy it, there is no criminal or civil liability provided that where a dog is maimed or wounded all reasonable steps are taken to minimize its suffering.
There are significant penalties for non-compliance with the Animals Protection Act and the Dog Control Act. Repeat offenders can be classed as probationary owners or disqualified from dog ownership.
Anyone who witnesses cruel treatment or neglect of a dog sufficient to cause it unnecessary or unreasonable pain or suffering may report the matter to an Inspector under the Animals Protection Act.
Inspectors include certain veterinarians and livestock officers in the Ministry of Agriculture, certain officers of the RNZSPCA and its affiliates, and police officers.
Inspectors appointed under the Animals Protection Act 1960 have the power to enter land or premises and, with the authority of a Justice, dwelling houses to inspect an animal, if the Inspector has reasonable grounds to believe that an offence against the Act has been or is being committed. It is lawful for an Inspector to seize and maintain possession of an animal where the Inspector believes that an offence may have been committed.
It is lawful for an Inspector to obtain possession of an animal where the Inspector believes that an offence is being or has been committed in relation to the animal.
The above references to the Animals Protection Act 1960 and the Dog Control Act 1996 are believed to be correct at the date of publication of this code. However, it is the responsibility of the user of this code to keep him/herself informed of any legislative changes.
3.2 Definition of terms
The interpretation of the words shall, must and should is as follows:
shall means there is a statutory requirement must indicate a minimum standard should denote a strong recommendation.
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4 Nutrition

4.1 General principles
Dogs shall be fed to maintain their body weight within the normal physiological range, no matter how much physical activity they have.
Ideal body weight depends on breed and age. The food offered should be sufficient in amount and appropriately balanced in nutrients to meet their physiological needs.
As a general rule, dogs should be fed at least once a day, and it is generally best to divide their daily ration into two, fed in the morning and in the evening.
Working dogs should be fed at the end of their working day.
A small meal an hour or two before exercise may be beneficial before prolonged periods of work (see 8.1).
Body condition can be scored from 0 to 5 as follows:
0 emaciated
1 theoutlineof all ribs readilyfeitor(in short-haired dogs)seen
2 the outline of the last two ribs can be readily felt or (in short- haired dogs) seen
3 all ribs or all but the last two lightly covered by fat
4 ribs covered by a layer of fat, outline not readily felt
5 obese, ribs cannot be felt without considerable pressure
Dogs with body condition 0 or 1 are likely to have a dull lustreless coat.
Body condition score 3 is ideal for most dogs. Working dogs and some leaner breeds are in ideal condition at body score 2. Body condition scores 1 and 5 are undesirable and body condition score 0 is unacceptable.
There are many good quality complete and balanced commercial dog foods available. Diets may be home-mixed provided they are complete and balanced. An all-lean-meat diet such as farm-killed lean mutton does not provide a balanced diet (see 8.1).
Varying the brand or type of food periodically is recommended. Certain prohibitions apply to the feeding of meat and offal from livestock to dogs. (See appendix)
4.2 Maintenance and production
Maintenance feeding (M) is that required to maintain a dog's body weight or condition.
When a dog is growing, given significant exercise orwork, or lactating, then its nutrient requirements increase over and above its maintenance requirements to meet the additional demands.
Some life-stages of the dog require more than maintenance feeding to provide the extra nutrients needed. There is a great difference between the quality and quantity of feed required by pups sucking their dams, pups after weaning, young growing dogs, lactating bitches, working dogs and old dogs, as indicated below:
Dogs in work
Light exercise 1.5 x Maintenance (M)
Medium exercise 2.0 x M
Heavy exercise 2.5 to 3 x M
Late pregnancy 2.5 x M
Early lactation 3.0 x M

6-9weeks 1.5 to 3.0 x M
9 weeks onwards decrease to adult levels
Table l shows the quantity of various types of food which should be given daily to meet maintenance requirements, assuming the food provided is of good quality. The figures shown are a guide only.
Dogs of similar size and type kept under the same conditions can vary in their energy requirements by as much as 50%.
In cold weather up to twice the maintenance ration maybe required to provide the extra energy needed.
4.3 Dogs with special nutritional requirements:
Pregnant bitches
An appropriate and balanced diet is required for pregnancy-and additional quantities of feed are required as pregnancy advances to ensure the bitch remains in acceptable body condition, that her pups grow normally and that metabolic diseases such as hypoglycaemia do not develop. A high-quality complete and balanced diet is essen- tial to support the rapid growth of pups in ulero. The feed may be divided into small lots given three to four times throughout the day.
Lactating bitches
Lactating bitches may require up to three times maintenance rations (see above) to help ensure an adequate milk supply, ad- equate nutrition of the bitch and to prevent metabolic disease such as eciampsia. The feed is best divided and fed three or four times a day. Again a complete and balanced diet is essential to support the rapid growth of pups.
Unweaned pups
Pups can be offered easily-digested food from 3 weeks of age. By feeding the pups, fewer demands are placed on the bitch and this is important for her welfare, especially if she has a large litter.
Growing dogs
From weaning until they have finished growing, young dogs require a diet with an appropriate supplement of calcium, protein and vitamins. There are dangers in providing too much calcium and in overfeeding, and if there is any doubt about what is appropriate, veterinary advice should be obtained.
Appropriately balanced proprietary dog foods are available for growing dogs and are recommended, particularly in breeds at risk of developmental joint disease.
4.4 Risky foods
As dogs will eat a wide range of food and as they may devour their food quickly, there is a constant danger that they may eat harmful material. It is therefore important to check all food given to dogs to make sure it is free from anything that may harm them.
Food should be free from corn cobs, wool from unskinned sheep carcases, plastic dog roll wrap and plastic bags as these can cause intestinal obstruction. Food should also be free from sharp bone fragments (eg fish bones), sharp plastic or wooden objects such as toothpicks and any bone that could be chewed into sizeable frag- ments and swallowed, as these can cause blockages and perforate the intestine. Ear tags and other metal or plastic objects used in livestock may be fatal if scavenged (see 8.1).
4.5 Advice on feeding
If there is any doubt about the appropriate feeding regime for a Dog, advice should be obtained from an expert such as a reputable experienced dog manager or a veterinarian.
5 Water
Water is essential for all body functions. Water is particularly important for dogs because their main method of losing heat is by evaporation of saliva from the tongue when panting. When a dog is hot its tongue swells, its rate of salivation increases and it has an increased requirement for water to replace the fluid lost while panting.
Whenever possible, that is when not working, exercising or trav- elling, dogs must have ready access to clean water at all times, particularly in hot weather. The water should be potable and cool. When working, exercising or travelling, and particularly in hot weather, it is important that dogs have access to drinking water at frequent intervals (at least 2-hourly).Top of list...
6 Housing

6.1 General
Dogs must be provided with sheltered, dry and draught-free sleeping areas, with room to move around freely and to urinate and defalcate away from the sleeping area.
For dogs that do not share their owners home, accommodation may be a kennel to which the dog has free access, a kennel with an enclosed run attached, or a kennel to which the dog is tied. The last is the least-preferred option.
The kennel or sleeping area must be large enough to allow the dog to stand up and turn around and lie down comfortably. At frequent intervals it should be cleaned so that it is dry and clear of faeces, mud and bones.
Metal-based and concrete-based sleeping areas are not recommended because they may cause pressure sores and exacerbate arthritis. Lead ridging or skirting should be avoided.
Several dogs may be housed in a communal kennel with a communal run attached, but dogs housed in this way must be socially compatible with no risk of fighting or mismating, and the size of both the kennel and the run must be such that each dog is comfortably housed according to the principles outlined above.
If the dog is tethered to its kennel or if it has access to an attached run, the length of the tether or the size of the run should be roughly inversely proportional to the amount of exercise the dog receives when not attached to its kennel or confined.
A dog which is free to exercise off the tether or out of the run for a relatively short time each day requires a longer tether or larger exercise area than one which has the opportunity to exercise for a relatively long time each day. To prevent entanglement if the dog is secured to its kennel by a tether, the dog's collar should be connected to the chain or rope by a swivel clip and there must be no physical protrusions or obstructions which could result in entanglement or injury. Light but strong chains are preferable to rope tethers as they are less likely to become tangled around a limb and they cannot be chewed through.
Chain tethers must not be used within reach of electrified wires.
Food and water containers should be placed so that they cannot be tipped over or fouled by faeces or urine. Bowls should be made of non-chewable material.
The floor of runs should be solid or slatted or grass-based, and well drained. There should be no gaps capable of injuring the feet. The runs should be cleaned sufficiently often to keep them clean and clear of faeces at most times. Releasing the dog early each morning usually helps prevent fouling of the area.
6.2 Bitches with litters
Housing for bitches with unweaned pups should be cleaned frequently. This is especially important as the pups get older and the bitch is less able to clean up after them. A whelping box should be used and advice on an appropriate design obtained from an expert such as a reputable experienced dog breeder or a veterinarian.
6.3 Bedding
The requirement for bedding depends on factors such as the body condition of the dog, the length of its coat, its age and the effective- ness of the housing. If bedding is provided it requires regular renewal or cleaning and disaffection.
Dogs generally appreciate bedding, and old dogs and dogs with arthritis benefit from supportive bedding such as foam pads. Cal- luses or sores may develop over the elbows and hocks of short- coated lean dogs which lie on hard surfaces, and these dogs also benefit from bedding.
6.4 Shade and ventilation
In hot weather, and particularly if dogs have metal kennels or kennels with a metal roof, dogs must have access to an area which is shaded, with effective ventilation. Shade materials should be installed if required, or kennels should be moved into shaded areas during the hottest part of the summer.
Dogs in cars may overheat in sunny weather (see 9).
6.5 Insulation
Non-insulated kennels can become very cold, particularly if they are made of metal. As a general rule, kennels should be lined and floored by insulating material such as wood. This is particularly important in winter in colder parts of the country.
6.6 Site
The site for the kennel(s) should be chosen carefully. If the environment lacks interest some dogs may be bored and bark persistently while other dogs may be content. On the other hand, a site which looks out on an area of activity such as a street can sleeping areas, with room to move around freely and to urinate and defalcate away from the sleeping area.
For dogs that do not share their owners home, accommodation may be a kennel to which the dog has free access, a kennel with an enclosed run attached, or a kennel to which the dog is tied. The last is the least-preferred option.
The kennel or sleeping area must be large enough to allow the dog to stand up and turn around and lie down comfortably. At frequent intervals it should be cleaned so that it is dry and clear of faeces, mud and bones. Metal-based and concrete-based sleeping areas are not recommended because they may cause pressure sores and exacerbate arthritis. Lead ridging or skirting should be avoided.
Several dogs may be housed in a communal kennel with a communal run attached, but dogs housed in this way must be socially compatible with no risk of fighting or mismating, and the size of both the kennel and the run must be such that each dog is comfortably housed according to the principles outlined above.
If the dog is tethered to its kennel or if it has access to an attached run, the length of the tether or the size of the run should be roughly inversely proportional to the amount of exercise the dog receives when not attached to its kennel or confined. A dog which is free to exercise off the tether or out of the run for a relatively short time each day requires a longer tether or larger exercise area than one which has the opportunity to exercise for a relatively long time each day.
To prevent entanglement if the dog is secured to its kennel by a tether, the dog's collar should be connected to the chain or rope by a swivel clip and there must be no physical protrusions or obstructions which could result in entanglement or injury. Light but strong chains are preferable to rope tethers as they are less likely to become tangled around a limb and they cannot be chewed through. Chain tethers must not be used within reach of electrified wires.
Food and water containers should be placed so that they cannot be tipped over or fouled by faeces or urine. Bowls should be made of non-chewable material.
The floor of runs should be solid or slatted or grass-based, and well drained. There should be no gaps capable of injuring the feet. The runs should be cleaned sufficiently often to keep them clean and clear of faeces at most times. Releasing the dog early each morning usually helps prevent fouling of the area.Top of list...
7 Exercise
Dogs require adequate exercise. It is recommended that each day the dog should be allowed at least 30 minutes (small breeds) to 2 hours (large breeds) off the lead or chain or out of the run, with freedom to explore the environment.
Dogs which are normally tied up or kept in close confinement shall be given or allowed a reasonable amount of exercise daily.
Regular exercise is important for working dogs to keep them fit, even during periods of little or no work. A dog should not be exercised too much for its stage of fitness, as it may develop muscle or joint problems.
It is often during exercise periods that dogs interact with other dogs and fights can break out, and all reasonable steps should be taken to prevent this.
Pregnant bitches should be allowed gentle exercise but should not be given strenuous exercise and should not be worked in the last 2 weeks of their 9-week pregnancy.
Lactating bitches do not require regular exercise while their pups are very young. They should not be worked until the pups are close to weaning.
Old dogs require relatively less exercise and growing dogs should not be subjected to more exercise than they willingly take. Exercise on hard surfaces like tarmac can lead to worn footpads. Footpads should be conditioned to abrasive surfaces over a period of time.
Dogs should not be exercised or worked after a large meal (see 8.1).Top of list...
Health and disease

Health and welfare are strongly correlated. Diseases and disor- ders often cause dullness, discomfort and sometimes pain. Dog owners have a responsibility to prevent, control and treat disorders when appropriate and to maintain their dogs in healthy condition. Health and welfare should be checked daily. This should include observing whether the dog is eating, drinking, urinating, defecating and behaving normally.
Veterinary advice must be obtained if a dog shows significant signs of ill health which persist for more than a few days, or of severe distress which persist for more than a few hours.
The following signs may indicate ill-health:
abnormal dullness, lethargy or abnormal excitement, agitation
loss of or increase in thirst or appetite
a discharge from the eyes, nose, mouth, anus, vagina or prepuce
vomiting, diarrhoea
any bleeding which is unlikely to stop or which has not stopped within a few minutes
straining as if to defalcate or urinate
sneezing or coughing or abnormal or increased rate of breathing
lameness or gait abnormality, inability to stand
loss of balance, uncoordinated gait, fits
significant weight loss
patchy or excessive hair loss
swelling of part of the body
pale gums and inner eyelids
persistent scratching or biting resulting in self mutilation
persistent shaking of the head.
A small amount of thick white discharge from the prepuce of entire dogs is common and is usually not significant.
8.1 Diseases related to nutrition
Malnutrition or the feeding of unbalanced diets can lead to;
growth problems/skeletal problems especially in large breeds during phases of rapid growth
deficiency diseases such as vitamin Bl (thiamine) deficiency in dogs fed poor quality pet rolls, or meat which has been frozen, particularly if the thawed juices have been discarded
weight loss in working dogs fed only lean meat such as cull ewe carcases (because of insufficient fat)
eciampsia in lactating bitches (see 4.3)
Overfeeding leads to obesity, a condition which is common in household pets and which can lead to many disorders, particularly heart and kidney problems, diabetes, arthritis and skin problems. Generally less food and more exercise are required if overweight dogs are to lose weight.
The frequent feeding of bones can result in constipation. Dogs, particularly those with deep chests and those with an enlarged stomach as a result of long-term once-a-day feeding, are at risk of gastric torsion (gastric bloat) if they exercise vigorously when their stomach is full. This condition is often fatal without immediate veterinary attention.
Dogs should not be exercised for at least an hour after a large meal.
Dogs are natural scavengers. Care should be taken to ensure that they do not ingest inappropriate material such as wool, plastic, metal objects, toys, golf balls, squash balls and nylon pantyhose (see 4.4). Pups are especially at risk.
8.2 Vaccination
Effective vaccines are available against parvovirus disease, dis- temper, hepatitis, leptospirosis and kennel cough.
A veterinarian should be consulted regarding an appropriate vaccination pro- gramme, which generally should begin at 8 to 9 weeks of age, with inoculations every 2 to 3 weeks to 12 to 16 weeks of age, then yearly boosters as appropriate. Breeding bitches should be vaccinated annually. In some circumstances, pups should be immunised against parvovirus disease at an earlier age- and veterinary advice should be obtained to establish if this is advisable.
8.3 Parasite diseases
Internal parasites such as intestinal worms are a major disease problem and also a public health risk, and dogs should be wormed regularly, especially pups, pregnant and lactating bitches.
Pups should be wormed regularly with a good quality roundworm reatment (antheimintic) at 2-week intervals from 2 to 12 weeks of age.
Dogs should be wormed monthly from 3 to 8 months of age then from 3 to 6-month intervals through adult life. However the optimal intervals vary depending on circumstances and a veterinarian can advise on what is appropriate.
Bitches should be wormed in early and in late pregnancy, and at -week intervals while lactating (because they ingest pup faeces).
Dogs which eat rabbits and other rodents may develop tapeworms in their intestine.
Although tapeworm infestations are unlikely to use significant disease, treatment with a tapeworm remedy is recommended for these dogs, particularly if tapeworm segments are passed in faeces or observed on the skin beside the anus.
There are several types of parasite which live in or on the skin, including fleas, mange mites, lice and ticks.
Fleas are a common problem in many areas. Since fleas spend mostoftheirtime in bedding, treatmentof bedding is an essential part of their control. Bedding should be cleaned or replaced at regular intervals to help prevent fleas.
The signs of mange include spreading areas of hair loss, small pimples or sores and sometimes itchy skin. Treatment can be difficult particularly in advanced cases, and it is important to seek veterinary help at an early stage of the disease. Some types of mange affect humans as well as dogs.
If dogs are tethered or in runs of bare earth, they should regularly be moved to fresh ground and/or the area should be kept clear of faeces, to prevent the build-up of bookworms.
Many diseases, including worm infestations, are related to poor hygiene. Pens should be kept clean and faeces should be removed regularly as part of disease control measures.
When dogs are treated for parasites, only medications registered for use in dogs should be given and they should be used in accord- ance with the manufacturer's instructions.
8.4 Diseases of the skin
Dermatitis or eczema is every common problem in dogs, and there are many causes, including allergies and parasite diseases (see 8.3), infections, nutritional imbalances and hormonal disorders. Few of these diseases resolve without treatment, and in general delays make treatment more difficult and more expensive.
Dogs have anal glands on either side of the anus. Impaction and infection of the glands occur commonly, resulting in irritation and pain which may be indicated by the dog rubbing the area by "scooting" along the ground, or by the dog attempting to bite the area.
Veterinarians can empty the glands and treat infections that develop, and in severe cases may surgically remove the glands.
8.5 Claw care and grooming
Overgrown claws in dogs which get little or no exercise on rough ground and overgrown dew claws can be a nuisance for owners, and the overgrown tips should be removed.
Care and skill are essential to ensure that only the bloodless tip of the claw is removed.
Sharp clippers are required to prevent painful crushing of the nail bed. Clippers or grinders can be used to remove the claw tips, but removing too much claw will cause bleeding that may persist for some time and which may result in infection.
Unless the owner is sufficiently skilled to trim the claws without causing pain or bleeding the procedure should be carried out by someone who has appropriate skills, preferably a veterinarian or professional dog groomer.
Dogs with long hair may require strategic and regular clipping of hair from the body and legs to prevent the hair from impeding their movements, and from around the eyes and mouth so that they can see and eat normally.
They should be brushed regularly to prevent the formation of matts in the coat.
If matts form, they should be carefully teased and brushed out or clipped off without damaging the underlying skin. If matts persist they may harbor external parasites, and dermatitis is likely to develop in the underlying skin.
Regular grooming of long-haired dogs helps prevent penetration of the skin by barley grass awns.
Shampooing and bathing dogs is generally not necessary if the dog is kept in a clean environment. However occasional bathing, particularly of long-haired dogs, may be beneficial to help prevent an unpleasant odour. There are shampoos available which have been specially formulated for dogs and these should be used in preference to other types of shampoo, which may cause skin irritation.
8.6 Poisoning
Dogs are natural scavengers and are susceptible to accidental poisoning by many substances such as rodenticides (e.g. anticoagu- lants, 1080 poison, cyanide) and slug bait. Some poisons are added to a palatable bait such as carrot, grain, pollard or jam. Dogs are also susceptible to secondary poisoning by eating poisoned carcasses.
With some poisons, signs may not develop for up to 10 days after ingestion.
Dogs are particularly susceptible to 1080 poison, which can remain in an active form for 5 months or more in the carcasses of rabbits and possums which have been mummified or frozen. The signs of poisoning in dogs which scavenge these carcasses are frenzied behaviour, extreme fear and panic, howling, cowering and eventually fits and death. Veterinary help should be obtained immediately.
Most agencies which carry out 1080 operations sell wire mesh muzzles for dogs and can provide capsules to induce vomiting, and the owners of dogs near areas where 1080 operations are carried out should contact the Regional Council for advice.
Dogs can be poisoned as a result of drinking water polluted with toxins such as sheep dip, or antifreeze or even toxic algae, and care should be taken to cover polluted water or prevent access to it. It is important that all potential poisons on the farm, in the home and garden, and poisons in use are out of reach of dogs. Dogs must be kept under strict control and muzzled when released in areas where they could have access to poisons.
A dog which has eaten poison requires urgent veterinary attention. If this is not possible veterinary advice should be obtained by phone. It may be possible to induce vomiting before any poison is absorbed into the system.
Vomiting may sometimes be induced by drenching the dog with one of the following - a concentrated solution of common salt, or a 3% concentration of hydrogen peroxide (one tablespoonful per 7 kg body weight repeated after 10 minutes if not initially effective), or a walnut-sized crystal of washing soda coated in butter, or syrup of ipecac (2.2 ml per kg body weight, maximum 60 mi, given once). However the dog must not be made to vomit if the poison 'Is strongly acid, alkaline or a petroleum product or if the dog has become very dull. Advice for owners of dogs which may have ingested 1080 is given above.
8.7 Special classes of dog
Pregnant bitches
As well as the special nutritional and exercise requirements of pregnant bitches (see 4.2, 4.3 and 7), they should be fully vaccinated (see 8.2). This will protect pups against specific diseases for up to 3 months after birth. Bitches should also be wormed before whelping (see 8.3).
Unweaned pups
Unweaned pups should be examined regularly for fleas, skin problems and eye infections. They should be treated for worms regularly (see 8.3).
Old dogs
With increasing age there is a greater requirement for comfortable warm housing, for free access to water and for nutritious and easily- ingested food. Proprietary foods specially balanced for old dogs are available and are recommended. Older dogs require less exercise and can tolerate less work than younger dogs.
The age at which dogs require these concessions varies with factors such as breed, size and working history. Annual veterinary checkups are recommended to prevent diseases and to treat disorders at an early stage.Top of list...
9 Transport
The Animals Protection Act requires that every person in charge of a vehicle, whether a stock truck or a car, shall ensure that any dog carried in that vehicle is provided with reasonably comfortable and secure accommodation (see 3.1).
AWAC's Transport Code (the Code of Recommendations and Minimum Standards for the Welfare of Animals during Transportation in New Zealand) deals with most matters relating to the welfare of dogs during transportation, including the following standards and recommendations:
dogs should be transported out of sight of livestock
if dogs are carried in a purpose-built kennel, it must be fixed to the vehicle in a position where it is well-ventilated and free from exhaust fumes and road dust. Alternatively dogs may be carried in the cab of the truck provided they are restrained, for example by a proprietary harness secured to the seat belt
while a vehicle is on a road or highway, a dog shall not be carried on the open rear of a truck... unless it is secured or enclosed in a crate. The securing lead or chain should be attached to a leather collar via a swivel and the other end of the chain or lead must be firmly attached to the tray hard up against the cab which will provide protection against the wind
the securing lead or chain should be long enough to permit
the dog to stand, lie down and move about but must not be of a length which would permit either the front or hind legs reaching the side of the tray when the dog is standing in a normal posture. The length must also be short enough to prevent the dog from climbing into the cab
dogs should not be carried on the open back of vehicles during extremes of weather
dogs must not be carried in the closed boot of a car unless adequate ventilation is provided
where a dog is carried in a purpose-built box fixed to the rear of a car, the kennel must be fixed where it is well ventilated and free from exhaust fumes and road dust.
Additional recommendations are as follows:
Dogs must not be held in cars or car boots or portable kennels if there is a risk of them overheating. Temperatures in a closed car in full sun can reach 50 degrees C in less than half and hour, and this is rapidly fatal for any dog trapped inside.
While the car is moving, the use of a proprietary harness to secure the dog to fitted seat belts is recommended. A process of familiarisa- tion should be undertaken to prevent the dog being distressed by sudden unexpected restraint.
If a dog is transported on the back of or on the fuel tank of a farm motorbike, the driver must take all reasonable steps to safeguard the dog during transportation, especially when the vehicle is moving at speed. Few farm motorbikes are fitted with a suitable dog carry-tray. If the farmer makes a dog carry-tray, the dog should be able to sit or stand on the tray securely without sliding off during cornering or at speed.
It is important that dogs are offered clean cool water at frequent intervals during transportation (see 5).
As a general rule, no dog should be allowed to travel with its head sticking out of the window, as there is a risk of injury particularly to its eyes and neck.
Dogs with a nervous disposition may benefit from mild sedation during transportation. Veterinary guidance is recommended before the use of sedatives.Top of list...
10 Training
In all training techniques the emphasis should be on reward and positive reinforcement, using consistency in voice tone and visual signals.
1 0. 1 Choosing an appropriate dog as a pet
It is very important that owners choose a breed or type of dog appropriate for their situation. The appropriate breed depends on the skill and experience of the owner, the time he/she has for a dog, and very important, the environment and facilities available. First-time dog owners should discuss the options with an expert such as a veterinarian before deciding what breed and gender to choose, and they should obtain pups only from a reputable source.
Some breeds are more inclined than others to become inappropri- ately aggressive, particularly if they are not managed and trained properly. People with little experience should not acquire dogs of these breeds. However as a general rule for all breeds, good management and good training help ensure that behavioural faults do not develop.
10.2 Early socialisation
From 4 to 15 weeks of age is the best time to begin socialising the pup and introducing it to various experiences it will meet in later life. These include encounters with children, strangers, other animals, strange noises and vehicles. Many behavioural problems in mature dogs can be related to poor socialisation as a pup.
Pups which are to be companion dogs can be taken to socialisation classes (puppy preschool) from 8 to 16 weeks of age. It is important that the pups have started their vaccination course and that their exposure to non-vaccinated dogs is minimised.
10.3 Dog obedience classes
If the dog is to be under control when not physically restrained, the owner must ensure that it will obey basic commands. To encourage effective control of the dog, it is recommended that the owner take it to obedience classes from the time it is about 16 weeks old. Before this age pups have a very short attention span and attempts at formal training can be counter-productive.
There are dog obedience clubs in most towns and cities. Dogs should be fully vaccinated before attending.
10.4 Discipline and training aids
Any physical punishment for a dog should be short, it should be given during or immediately after the offending behaviour, it should be no more than the minimum required to be effective, and it should be in accordance with accepted techniques. For many dogs verbal scolding is sufficient.
For the most severe punishment, a firm non-bruising blow with a soft object like a rolled up newspaper may be appropriate. Sticks and rigid objects such as whips must not be used, except as a last resort break up a fight between dogs or an attack by a dog on a person or other creature. Dogs must not be subjected to repeated blows with ny solid object.
Other unacceptable disciplinary techniques include:
setting the pack on an individual dog
use of nose rings to prevent biting
tying a string around the muzzle to prevent biting
tying a neck-chain bar to the collar to impede movement use of a collar with spikes on the inside
attaching a dog to an electric fence even momentarily.
Putting a front leg through the collar (to slow down an over-eager working dog) is a practice which must not be carried out except by experienced competent handlers and for periods of time of not more than half an hour. It must not impair the dog's breathing.
If a dog has wandered there is no justification for punishing it on its return as it is likely to associate the punishment with returning rather than leaving.
Collars must fit comfortably without chafing the skin or impeding breathing. They should be checked regularly, particularly in young growing dogs, and loosened if necessary to prevent these adverse effects. It should be possible to slip three fingers comfortably around and under the collar.
The collar with registration disc or label attached should be worn at all times. This makes it easier for lost or stray dogs to be returned to their owners.
Choke chains
Choke chains should fit comfortably without hanging slack. They should be used only during training sessions and when the dog is on lead. They should not be left on at other times because of the risk becoming caught and causing distress or even strangling the dog.
Electric dog collars
There are three types of electric dog collar. One has a hand-held remote) control for distance work, one is activated by noise (the anti- bark collar) and one is activated by an underground wire (the sonic boundary). All have electrode studs inside the collar from which a shock is delivered from a battery unit attached to the collar. Collars with protruding studs which could damage the skin must not be used (See Collars above).
Electric collars have been available for some years. Some early imported models may still be available but they are unacceptable because they deliver inappropriately large shocks, random shocks or shocks triggered by signals other than those intended. For example, some collars may be triggered by extraneous radio signals, by the bark of a neighboring dog or any other loud noise.
Some modern electric collars (electronic training aids) are more Acceptable for the following reasons. They are designed to give small shocks, that is, shocks with a high voltage but very low amperage analogous to static electricity.
The magnitude of the impulse can be adjusted to the minimum necessary for effect in a particular dog. They administer shocks only in response to a specific trigger. There is an in built audible warning before administration of a shock when the offending behaviour is repeated, and they have an in built delay before repeat shocks can be delivered.
Electric collars have the potential to cause extreme distress if used wrongly, and this is particularly true of older designs and makes which do not have in built safeguards against abuse. However, modern collars as described above can be useful if used minimally and strategically. For example remote-controlled collars could help correct serious behavioural faults such as biting sheep or unpro- voked attacks on other dogs, and sonic boundary collars could help prevent straying from home.
The anti-bark collar is used to stop dogs causing a nuisance by persistent barking. However some dogs bark persistently because they are anxious, lonely, hungry or they may be expressing alarm at novel sights as guard dogs do. Simple modifications of management or environment may solve the problem (see 6.6 and 10.5).
Electric collars must not be used if they deliver inappropriately large shocks, give random shocks or are activated by a trigger other than that intended, and collars which cause physical discomfort or injury to the neck must not be used. The intensity of the shock selected should be the minimum required for effect, and electric collars must not be used on dogs with a nervous disposition. Shocks must not be administered except during or immediately after the offending behaviour. Electric collars with protruding studs must not be used when the dog's skin is wet.
Electric collars must not be loaned or leased for use unless the owner of the collar has taken all reasonable steps to ensure that the prospective operator understands how to use it humanely. Other types of anti-bark device deliver an unpleasant noise or a spray of citronelia (an aversive odour) from a small canister on the dog's collar when triggered by the dog's bark. If these collars are operating efficiently, and if the handler is skilled, they can be effective.
When any of the above collars is used, the manufacturer's instructions must be followed carefully to minimise the risk of adverse effects on the dog and the collars should not be left on dogs which are unsupervised. It is important that the owners of dogs which have behavioral problems discuss the problems with their veterinarian, an animal psychologist or other person with recognised skill in dog training before resorting to use of these devices. The operators of the devices must be capable of detecting and alleviating the early signs of distress in the dogs being trained.
10.5 Nuisance behaviour
Some dogs develop habits which cause annoyance to their owners and others. Nuisance behaviour includes persistent barking, aggressiveness, chasing cars and destructive behaviour. These can be serious faults. However there is often an underlying reason for the behaviour. Boredom, insufficient exercise and inappropriate training are frequent predisposing factors, so altering or enriching the environment or improving training techniques may provide an effective remedy (see 6.6, 7, 10.3 and 10.4). If dogs develop antisocial habits, a recognised expert should be consulted for remedial advice, and this advice should be obtained as early as possible. Appropriate experts include veterinarians and animal behaviourists.
10.6 Working dogs
There is a wide range of working dogs in the community including farm dogs, racing dogs, police dogs, customs dogs, guide dogs, guard dogs, search and rescue dogs, dogs to help the disabled and many more.
The training of all working dogs is a specialised discipline. The dog's welfare must be safeguarded wherever possible and the training should be carried out only by or under the supervision of skilled trainers or with their guidance.Top of list...
11 Breeding and reproduction

11.1 Genetic characteristics
Today's wide diversity of dog breeds has been developed by humans from early wolf-like dog types. However, in some breeds, selective breeding has resulted in an increased risk of disorders such as joint diseases, dental problems, breathing difficulties, skin problems, obstetric difficulties, blood clotting disorders, blindness and diabetes.
The Breed Societies of the breeds most at risk from hip and elbow dysplasia and retinai atrophy are taking a responsible approach by operating schemes which enable early detection and identification of carriers, by trace back if applicable, so that only dogs free of the faults and unlikely to pass them to their offspring are used for breeding. Breeders should not perpetuate disorders which have adverse effects on the dog's health and welfare.
They should ensure that when they supply dogs known to have inherited faults and dogs which are at risk of developing such faults that the new owners are fully informed about the faults and about their responsibilities to prevent unnecessary suffering and to have the dogs neutered. Artificial insemination must not be used to facilitate the breeding of dogs which have inherited disorders which could adversely affect their welfare.
11.2 Neutering
Neutering, also called desexing or spaying (females) or castration (males), is recommended for all male and female dogs that are not intended for breeding. Breeding should only be contemplated if the owner is knowledgeable about dog breeding, containment facilities are good and there is a negligible risk of accidental mating.
If dogs are to be neutered (spayed or castrated), the procedure shall be carried out only by a veterinarian.
The traditional age for neutering is around 5 to 6 months, when most male and female dogs are prepubertal.
There are arguments for and against spaying bitches before their first heat (oestrus), and on balance it appears that there is little benefit if any in waiting until after the first heat. In certain circumstances, neutering earlier than 5 months of age may bejustified in the interests of population control, for example at animal welfare shelters. It is a common but erroneous belief that the bitch benefits from having a litter of pups before being neutered.
In individual cases it is recommended that the best age for neutering be determined after discussion with a veterinarian. Neutering has no significant deleterious effect on the behaviour of dogs, whether companion dogs or working dogs. Castration may in fact curb the tendency of male dogs to wander in search of bitches in heat. Some dogs have a tendency to become overweight after spaying or castration but this can be controlled by adequate exercise and an appropriate diet.
11.3 Bitches in heat and mating
Most intact bitches come into heat (oestrus) for 1 to 3 weeks at intervals of about 4 to 10 months. Bitches in heat must be carefully supervised or securely contained, if necessary behind solid walls to discourage visiting dogs and prevent unwanted matings. The scent they produce can attract dogs from far away, and owners must take all reasonable steps to contain the bitch and the odour while still allowing the bitch sufficient exercise and without causing her undue distress.
During planned matings, special care is needed to prevent inju- ries, with advice if necessary from recognised experts. The mating pair can be locked together for some time and they should be allowed to separate naturally. Attempts to hasten separation can result in serious injuries to one or both dogs.
If an unintended mating has taken place, prompt treatment given by a veterinarian from the third day after mating will usually prevent conception. This should not be relied on as a means of preventing pregnancies, as repeated treatments can have adverse effects on the bitch's health.
It is possible to prevent bitches from coming into heat (oestrus) by using various strategically-administered pharmaceutical products. These may be obtained after consultation with a veterinarian.
11.4 Pregnancy, whelping and lactation
During pregnancy (about 63 days duration) the bitch must be appropriately fed (see 4.2, 4.3) and exercised (see 7). It is important that a few days before the due date the bitch is given a place to whelp which is warm, comfortable, clean and cleanable and away from the attentions of other dogs (see 6.2).
Whelping should be supervised if possible so that the cords can be cut and pups helped to breathe if necessary and veterinary help can be obtained at an early stage if there are whelping difficulties. After whelping the bitch should generally be allowed uninterrupted access to her pups until weaning at 6 to 8 weeks. Pups must not be weaned before 4 weeks of age except with the guidance of a recognised expert such as a veterinarian.
A bitch with pups generally requires close supervision, appropriate feeding (see 4.2 4 3), exercise (see 7), supplementary feeding of the pups from 3 weeks of age (see 4.2, 4.3) and frequent cleaning of the box particularly from 2 to 3 weeks of age (see 6.2). If there are a large number of pups, early euthanasia of a proportion of them may benefit the bitch and the other pups, and this should be discussed with an expert.Top of list...
12 Surgical procedures

12.1 Tall docking
The dog uses its tail to aid balance and as a signaling device which aids communication with other dogs and humans. The muscles at the base of the tail help support the tissues around the perineum and in the pelvis.
Docking the tail of a dog can adversely affect the dog's welfare. Removal of the tail can result in blood loss and infection, and removal close to the body can occasionally predispose to perineal hernias, faecal incontinence, and in the bitch urinary incontinence On bal- ance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to justify tail docking in order to prevent tail injuries in later life.
The Animal Welfare Advisory Committee is opposed to the practice of tail-docking. For the above reasons, the tail docking of dogs should not be carried out. There may however be justification for amputation of a tail which has a non-healing injury.
12.2 Ear cropping
Ear cropping must not be carried out.
12.3 Removal of dew claws
The dew claws (vestigial digits inside the lower limbs) of dogs may be subject to repeated injury and so preventive removal of these claws may be 'justified. Dew claw removal from working dogs is recommended. Removal of dew claws which are large and loosely- attached is recommended, particularly if they are on the hind legs, unless the dew claws are protected by a long-haired coat and the dog's lifestyle is unlikely to predispose them to injury.
If dew claws are to be removed and the pup is 4 days old or less, the procedure must be carried out only by a veterinarian or with sufficient veterinary guidance to minimize pain, blood loss and the risk of infection. The dew claws of older dogs must be removed only by a veterinarian. It is recommended that the procedure be carried out at the same time as surgical neutering.
12.4 Debarking
Surgical debarking of dogs by a veterinarian should not be carried out unless all other reasonable preventive measures to prevent nuisance barking have failed (see 6.6, 10.4 and 10.5).
13 Injuries
Traumatic injuries are relatively common. Injured dogs may suffer shock, and require a warm comfortable quiet resting place to recover. The most extensive or severe injuries may necessitate emergency euthanasia (see 14). Otherwise if there are injuries such that move- ment and handling appear to be painful, a veterinarian must be consulted. Handlers should take great care to avoid being bitten. Open wounds should be kept clean and a veterinarian should be consulted promptly unless the wounds are minor. A veterinarian must be consulted if bleeding is profuse or persists for more than a few minutes. A veterinarian should be consulted if the dog shows any of the signs listed in section 8.
14 Euthanasia
Euthanasia of dogs should be carried out by a veterinarian. If this is not possible, a gunshot to the head may be the next best option. This should be undertaken only by a fully competent licensed person, taking special care to safeguard people and other animals in the area. The welfare of the dog being shot must be given prime consideration.
Pups must not be killed by drowning because in common with many mammalian neonates they have a diving reflex which prolongs the time they can survive without breathing and therefore the period of distress before drowning. Euthanasia should be carried out by a veterinarian. Information on the humane killing and correct disposal of carcasses can be obtained from veterinarians and Inspectors in the SPCA and Local Authority Animal Control Officers.Top of list...
15 General

15.1 Muzzling
A muzzle is usually made of wire or leather and it fits over the dog's nose and mouth in such a way that the dog is prevented from biting or eating. Some open wire muzzles are large enough to allow the dog to open its mouth to pant and drink water.
Muzzles should fit comfortably without chafing the skin or imped- ing breathing. They should not be left on dogs which are unattended. Muzzles which prevent the dog from panting or drinking must not be used if the dog is likely to become hot or thirsty (see 5) or if the muzzle is to be left on for more than a few hours
Dogs may initially find the wearing of a muzzle frightening or distressing. There should be a period of preconditioning with supervision by the handler.
15.2 Sporting dogs
In pig-hunting and sled-racing and other recreations and sports involving dogs the welfare of the dogs may be put at risk. All reasonable steps must be taken to safeguard the dogs from injury or distress, and appropriate training of the dogs and their handlers is essential. A first aid kit should be carried at all times when there is a risk of injury.
15.3 Fireworks
Many dogs find the sight and particularly the sound of fireworks very frightening. Owners should protect their dogs from the effects of fireworks, particularly dogs with a nervous disposition, by ensuring that they are housed or kennelled well away from fireworks displays. If prior notice is given, veterinary advice and sedative treatment may be appropriate if the dogs cannot be physically removed from the area.
15.4 Dog fighting
Dogs shall not be used in organised dog fights or the baiting of any other animal (see 3.1).Top of list...

Hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus)
To prevent dogs harbouring and spreading the tapeworms that cause hydatid cysts, dogs should not be fed the offal or the contents from the head of sheep, cattle, goats or pigs. If offal is fed it must be thoroughly cooked, for example by boiling for 30 minutes.
There may be no need to treat dogs for hydatids if control of dogs and feeding is appropriate. However if hydatids have occurred in livestock in the area, dogs should be dosed with an appropriate tapeworm remedy at regular intervals of 4 to 6 weeks.
Sheep measles (Cysticercus ovis)
Dogs should not be given meat from sheep or goats unless the meat has been either cooked by boiling for 30 minutes, or frozen at -1OoC for 7 days.
If the control of dogs and feeding standards are appropriate there may be no need to treat dogs for sheep measles. If however livestock in the area are infected or if there is concern about dog control or feeding standards, dogs should be dosed with an appropriate tapeworm remedy at regular intervals of no greater than 4 weeks.
The meat industry operates a voluntary program for the control of sheep measles.
All dogs coming onto sheep farms should be treated for sheep measles at least 48 hours prior to entry. Dog owners should carry a certificate of treatment.
Any one requiring copies of the code can purchase them for $5.00 from the:
Animal Welfare & Environment Section
P 0 Box 2526
Attn: Mrs Pam Edwards
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